Which Birds are called Birds of Prey?

Birds of prey are a fascinating group of birds that captivate us with their awe-inspiring beauty and remarkable hunting abilities. These majestic predators have evolved a unique set of characteristics and adaptations that make them formidable hunters in the avian world. From their sharp vision and powerful beaks to their exceptional flying skills, birds of prey exhibit a level of precision and prowess that sets them apart.

In this article, we delve into the world of birds of prey and will explore “Which Birds are called Birds of Prey and Why?”

bird of prey

What Birds are Called Birds of Prey?

Birds of prey, also known as raptors, are a specialized group of birds that are characterized by their predatory nature and hunting abilities. These birds are specifically adapted to catch and feed on other animals, primarily small mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects. What sets birds of prey apart is their sharp vision, powerful beaks, and strong talons, which allow them to excel in hunting and capturing their prey.

Birds of prey are classified into various species belonging to different families, including falcons, hawks, eagles, owls, vultures, and kites. Each species has its own unique characteristics and hunting strategies. They inhabit diverse ecosystems around the world, from forests and grasslands to deserts and mountainous regions.

Characteristics of Birds of Prey:

Birds of prey possess a unique set of characteristics that make them highly specialized hunters. These features enable them to excel in their predatory lifestyle and adapt to a wide range of environments. Here are some key characteristics of birds of prey:

Sharp Vision:

Birds of prey have exceptionally keen eyesight, which allows them to spot their prey from great distances. Their eyes are equipped with a high density of photoreceptor cells and specialized structures that enhance visual acuity. This acute vision enables them to locate small prey on the ground or in the air, even from great heights during soaring flights.

Powerful Beaks and Talons:

Birds of prey have strong, curved beaks and sharp, strong talons that are well-suited for capturing and subduing their prey. The beaks are hooked and often sharp-edged, allowing them to tear flesh and hold onto their catch. The talons, located on their feet, are formidable weapons used for grasping and killing prey. These adaptations enable birds of prey to effectively catch and handle their food.

Exceptional Flying Abilities:

Birds of prey are renowned for their impressive flying skills. They have strong wings and well-developed flight muscles, allowing them to maneuver swiftly and with agility. Many species of birds of prey are adept at soaring on thermal updrafts, conserving energy while searching for prey. They can perform intricate aerial maneuvers, such as rapid dives and tight turns, to pursue and capture their quarry. Their mastery of the sky enables them to cover large territories and effectively hunt across diverse landscapes.

These characteristics collectively contribute to the hunting success of birds of prey, ensuring their survival and maintaining their position as skilled predators in the natural world.

Types of Birds of Prey:

Birds of prey encompass a diverse range of species, each with its own unique characteristics and adaptations. Here are some of the major types of birds of prey:


Falcons are known for their incredible speed and agility. They are equipped with long, pointed wings that enable them to achieve remarkable speeds during flight. Falcons are skilled aerial hunters, employing swift dives and rapid stoops to capture their prey with precision. Peregrine falcons, for example, are renowned as the fastest animals on Earth, reaching speeds of over 240 miles per hour (386 kilometers per hour) during hunting dives.


Hawks are versatile hunters found in various habitats worldwide. They have broad wings and relatively short tails, which provide them with maneuverability during flight. Hawks employ a range of hunting techniques, including soaring, hovering, and stooping. They have keen eyesight and sharp talons, allowing them to detect and capture prey on the ground or in the air. Red-tailed hawks and Cooper’s hawks are well-known species of hawks.


Eagles are majestic birds of prey known for their large size and powerful build. They typically have long, broad wings and strong beaks and talons. Eagles are adept at soaring and have excellent vision, enabling them to spot prey from great distances. They often hunt fish near bodies of water but also target small mammals and birds. The bald eagle, with its iconic white head and tail, is a well-recognized species and a symbol of strength and freedom.


Owls are nocturnal birds of prey characterized by their silent flight, large eyes, and distinctive facial discs. They possess exceptional hearing and specialized feathers that allow them to fly silently, enhancing their stealth during hunting. Owls have sharp beaks and powerful talons for capturing and subduing their prey, which mainly consists of small mammals, birds, and insects. Popular owl species include the great horned owl, barn owl, and snowy owl.


Vultures are scavenging birds of prey that play a vital role in cleaning up carcasses and preventing the spread of diseases. They have featherless heads and powerful beaks adapted for tearing flesh. Vultures possess excellent eyesight and a keen sense of smell, enabling them to locate carrion from afar. They primarily feed on the remains of dead animals. The griffon vulture and turkey vulture are well-known vulture species.


Kites are graceful birds of prey characterized by their long, pointed wings and forked tails. They are often seen soaring and hovering in open areas, searching for small prey such as insects, rodents, and reptiles. Kites are agile fliers and rely on their sharp vision to spot potential meals on the ground. The black kite and swallow-tailed kite are notable kite species.

Hunting Techniques:

Birds of prey employ a variety of hunting techniques, each suited to their specific ecological niche and prey preferences. These techniques showcase their exceptional adaptability and predatory skills. Here are some common hunting techniques used by birds of prey:

Soaring and Searching:

Many birds of prey, such as hawks and eagles, utilize soaring and searching as their primary hunting technique. They take advantage of rising thermal air currents, using their broad wings to effortlessly glide and cover large areas. From high altitudes, they scan the landscape below, keenly observing for any signs of potential prey. Once a target is detected, they dive down to initiate their hunt.

Ambush and Pursuit:

Some raptors employ an ambush and pursuit strategy, particularly falcons and certain species of hawks. They select a suitable perch or vantage point from which they can survey their surroundings. When they spot prey, they swiftly launch themselves from their perch, using their speed and agility to chase down their target. This technique requires quick reflexes and precise maneuvering to capture fast-moving prey.

Diving and Stooping:

Falcons are renowned for their spectacular diving and stooping technique. They have streamlined bodies and pointed wings that enable them to achieve exceptional speeds during their aerial descent. Falcons soar at great heights, scanning the area for potential prey. Once a target is spotted, they tuck their wings and execute a rapid dive, stooping towards their prey with remarkable speed. This technique allows them to strike their prey with precision and force.

Stealth and Silent Flight:

Owls are masters of stealth and silent flight, particularly adapted for nocturnal hunting. Their feathers are specially designed to minimize sound production during flight, allowing them to approach prey without alerting them. Owls rely on their exceptional hearing and keen eyesight to locate small mammals and birds in the darkness. They silently swoop down on their prey, utilizing their sharp talons to secure a successful capture.

Adaptations for Hunting:

Birds of prey possess a range of adaptations that are specifically tailored for their hunting lifestyle. These adaptations enhance their ability to locate, capture, and consume their prey efficiently. Here are some notable adaptations for hunting displayed by birds of prey:

Enhanced Eyesight:

Birds of prey have remarkably sharp vision, allowing them to spot even the slightest movements from great distances. Their eyes are specially adapted with a high density of photoreceptor cells and a large fovea, which provides excellent visual acuity. This enhanced eyesight enables them to detect prey camouflaged among their surroundings or flying at a distance, ensuring successful hunting opportunities.

Hooked Beaks:

Birds of prey possess hooked beaks, which are essential tools for tearing flesh and dismembering prey. The curved shape of their beaks facilitates a precise grip on their catch, preventing it from escaping. The sharp edges of the beak enable them to efficiently tear apart the flesh of their prey, making it easier to consume.

Sharp Talons:

Birds of prey have powerful, sharp talons on their feet that are used for capturing and immobilizing prey. These talons are strong and curved, designed to grip and hold onto prey securely. They are capable of exerting a considerable amount of force, allowing birds of prey to subdue prey of varying sizes. Once the prey is captured, the sharp talons ensure a firm grasp until the bird is ready to feed.

Feather Adaptations:

Feathers play a crucial role in the hunting prowess of birds of prey. They have specialized feather adaptations that aid in their hunting activities. For example, the flight feathers are strong and provide the necessary lift and maneuverability during hunting flights. The wing feathers have serrated edges, which help to reduce noise during flight, allowing for a stealthier approach towards prey. Additionally, the feathers on their legs and feet provide protection against the struggles of capturing and handling prey.

Ecological Role of Birds of Prey:

Birds of prey play a vital ecological role in various ecosystems, contributing to the balance and functioning of natural communities. Here are some important ecological roles performed by birds of prey:

Controlling Pest Populations:

Birds of prey help regulate populations of small mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects, acting as natural pest control agents. By preying on these populations, they prevent the overabundance of certain species, which can have negative impacts on ecosystems. For example, owls help control rodent populations, reducing crop damage and the spread of diseases associated with rodents.

Indicators of Ecosystem Health:

Birds of prey serve as indicators of ecosystem health due to their position at the top of the food chain. As sensitive predators, they are affected by changes in their environment and food availability. Monitoring the population trends and health of birds of prey can provide valuable insights into the overall ecological condition of an ecosystem. Declines in their populations may indicate disturbances or imbalances in the ecosystem that require attention and conservation efforts.

Symbolic and Cultural Significance:

Birds of prey hold symbolic and cultural significance in many societies around the world. They have been revered and celebrated in various cultures, often representing strength, power, and freedom. Their presence in myths, folklore, and art reflects their deep-rooted place in human history and imagination. Birds of prey continue to captivate and inspire people, fostering a sense of appreciation and connection with the natural world.

Conservation and Threats:

Birds of prey face various conservation challenges and threats that jeopardize their populations and habitats. Understanding these challenges is crucial for implementing effective conservation measures. Here are some key conservation issues and threats faced by birds of prey:

Habitat Loss:

Habitat destruction and degradation pose a significant threat to birds of prey. Deforestation, urbanization, and conversion of natural habitats for agriculture or infrastructure development reduce available nesting sites, hunting grounds, and overall habitat quality. Loss of suitable habitat can lead to declines in prey populations, making it harder for birds of prey to find sufficient food resources.

Human Persecution:

Birds of prey have historically faced persecution from humans due to misconceptions, fear, or conflicts with human activities. Persecution includes intentional killing, trapping, and poisoning. Raptors may be targeted by certain industries, such as the illegal wildlife trade or illegal hunting practices. These actions disrupt populations and can have cascading effects on entire ecosystems.

Pollution and Pesticides:

Pollution and the use of pesticides have detrimental effects on birds of prey. Pesticides, such as organochlorines and rodenticides, can accumulate in their prey species, leading to poisoning and negative impacts on their reproductive success and overall health. Pollution, including air and water pollution, can degrade habitats, reduce prey availability, and impact the well-being of birds of prey.

Conservation efforts focused on birds of prey aim to mitigate these threats and ensure their long-term survival. These efforts include habitat conservation, restoration of nesting sites, captive breeding and reintroduction programs, public education and awareness, and legislation to protect birds of prey and their habitats.


Birds of prey, with their majestic beauty and remarkable hunting abilities, hold a significant place in the natural world. They play vital ecological roles, contribute to ecosystem balance, and inspire awe and appreciation among humans. Protecting and conserving birds of prey is not only important for their survival but also for the overall health and biodiversity of ecosystems.

By understanding the conservation challenges they face, such as habitat loss, human persecution, and pollution, we can take proactive steps to safeguard these magnificent creatures. Through habitat conservation, education, and responsible environmental practices, we can ensure the continued existence and well-being of birds of prey for future generations to admire and cherish.

Why are birds of prey called raptors?

Birds of prey are often referred to as raptors because they are known for their exceptional hunting skills and ability to seize and capture their prey with their sharp talons.

Do all birds of prey eat meat?

Yes, all birds of prey are carnivorous and primarily feed on other animals. Their diet consists of a variety of prey such as mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, and insects.

How many species of birds of prey exist?

There are approximately 500 species of birds of prey worldwide, belonging to different families such as eagles, hawks, falcons, owls, vultures, and kites.

Can birds of prey be kept as pets?

Birds of prey, due to their specialized needs and legal restrictions, are not suitable as pets for the average person. They require specialized care, large enclosures, and permits from authorities for legal ownership.

What is the largest bird of prey?

The largest bird of prey is the Andean condor (Vultur gryphus), which has a wingspan of up to 10.5 feet (3.2 meters) and can weigh over 30 pounds (14 kilograms). It is a vulture species found in the Andes Mountains of South America.

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